Over the last two centuries, energy needs have sky-rocketed dramatically, especially because of the growing transportation and industry sectors. However, fossil fuel reserves are limited so they are exhausting day by day but the need is inversely increasing day by day.
We know today that these resources are close to exhaustion and our societies are facing a major challenge called the energy crisis

In another way, fossil fuels are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and so on which are the key factors for global warming and increasing heatwave effects.

As the economy growing, as the population growing the need for energy is growing but the traditional source of energy like oil, petroleum coal are limited. from developed country US, EU to developing country India are in the same phase of every crisis.

Innovations in technology are causing the need for energy, in the same way, innovation in energy facilitating the development of a new sources of energy.

Trends or History of energy

  • Rising consumption as societies industrialize, gain wealth and shift from traditional sources of energy (mostly biomass-based fuels such as wood, dung and charcoal) to commercial forms of energy (primarily fossil fuels). 

  • Steady increases in both the power and efficiency of energy-producing and energy-using technologies. 

  • De-carbonization and diversification of fuels, especially for the production of electricity, throughout most of the 20th century.

A reduction in the quantities of conventional pollutants associated with energy use.

Key changes in the road of Energy Sector

    □ Rising Consumption and the Transition to Commercial Forms of Energy

    □ Increasing Power and Efficiency

    □ De-carbonization and Diversification, Especially in the Production of Electricity

    □ Reduction of conventional pollutants associated with energy use

    □ The Energy Challenge

    □ The Technology Challenge  

Renewable/Sustainable energy in India

India is the world's 3rd largest consumer of electricity and the world's 3rd largest renewable energy producer with 38% (136 GW out of 373 GW) of total installed energy capacity in 2020 from renewable sources. Ernst & Young's (EY) 2021 Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI) ranked India 3rd behind the USA and China

 Hydroelectric power  

India is the 5th globally for installed hydroelectric power capacity. As of 31 March 2020, India's installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity was 45,699 MW or 12.35% of its total utility power generation capacity.

Additional smaller hydroelectric power units with a total capacity of 4,380 MW (1.3% of its total utility power generation capacity) have been installed. Small hydro power, defined to be generated at facilities with nameplate capacities up to 25 MW, comes under the ambit of the Ministry of New and Renewable energy (MNRE); whilst large hydro, defined as above 25 MW, comes under the ambit of Ministry of Power.

India is endowed with the vast potential of pumped hydroelectric energy storage which can be used economically for converting non-dispatchable renewable energy like wind, solar, and run of the river hydropower into base /peak load power supply for its ultimate energy needs

Solar power  

India is densely populated and has high solar insulation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. Announced in November 2009, the Government of India proposed to launch its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. The program was inaugurated by former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 11 January 2010 with a target of 20GW grid capacity by 2022 as well as 2GW off-grid installations, this target was later increased to 100 GW by the same date under the Narendra Modi government in 2015 Union budget of India. Achieving this National Solar Mission target would establish India in its ambition to be a global leader in solar power generation. The Mission aims to achieve grid parity (electricity delivered at the same cost and quality as that delivered on the grid) by 2022. The National Solar Mission is also promoted and known by its more colloquial name of "Solar India". The earlier objectives of the mission were to install 1,000 MW of power by 2013 and cover 20×106 m2 (220×106 sq ft) with collectors by the end of the final phase of the mission in 2022.

On 30 November 2015, the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi and the President of France Francois Hollande launched the International Solar Alliance. The ISA is an alliance of 121 solar-rich countries lying partially or fully between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, several countries outside of this area are also involved with the organization. The ISA aims to promote and develop solar power amongst its members and has the objective of mobilizing $1 trillion of investment by 2030. As of August 2019, the Indian Oil Cooperation stated that it wants to invest 250 Billion Rupee in renewable energy projects

 Nuclear power

See also: Nuclear power in India

As of November 2020, India had 10 nuclear reactors under construction with a combined capacity of 8 GW and 23 existing nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 7.4 GW (3.11% of total power generation in India).[44][45][46] Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity and wind power.




India is an ideal environment for biomass production given its tropical location, sunshine and rains. The country's vast agricultural potential provides agro-residues which can be used to meet energy needs, both in heat and power applications.] According to IREDA "Biomass is capable of supplementing the coal to the tune of about 260 million tonnes", "saving of about Rs. 250 billion, every year. It is estimated that the potential for biomass energy in India includes 16,000 MW from biomass energy and a further 3,500 MW from biogas cogeneration. Biomass materials that can be used for power generation include biogas, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, coconut shells, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, coffee waste, jute wastes, groundnut shells, and sawdust.


In 2018, India has set a target to produce 15 million tons (62 mmcmd) of biogas/bio-CNG by installing 5,000 large-scale commercial-type biogas plants that can produce daily 12.5 tons of bio-CNG by each plant. The rejected organic solids from biogas plants can be used after Torrefaction in the existing coal-fired plants to reduce coal consumption.

The number of small family-type biogas plants reached 3.98 million.

Bio protein  

Synthetic methane(SNG) generated using electricity from carbon-neutral renewable power or Bio CNG can be used to produce protein-rich feed for cattle, poultry, and fish economically by cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria culture with tiny land and water footprint. The carbon dioxide gas produced as a by-product from these bio-protein plants can be recycled in the generation of SNG. Similarly, oxygen gas produced as a by-product from the electrolysis of water and the methanation process can be consumed in the cultivation of bacteria culture. With these integrated plants, the abundant renewable power potential in India can be converted into high-value food products without any water pollution or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for achieving food security at a faster pace with lesser people deployment in the agriculture/animal husbandry sector.

Waste to energy  

Every year, about 55 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 38 billion liters of sewage are generated in the urban areas of India. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Waste generation in India is expected to increase rapidly in the future. As more people migrate to urban areas and as incomes increase, consumption levels are likely to rise, as are rates of waste generation. It is estimated that the amount of waste generated in India will increase at a per capita rate of approximately 1–1.33% annually. This has significant impacts on the amount of land that is and will be needed for disposal, economic costs of collecting and transporting the waste, and the environmental consequences of increased MSW generation levels.

India has had a long involvement with anaerobic digestion and biogas technologies. Wastewater treatment plants in the country have been established which produce renewable energy from sewage gas. However, there is still significant untapped potential. Also, wastes from the distillery sector are on some sites converted into biogas to run in a gas engine to generate onsite power. Prominent companies in the waste to energy sector include


India imports 85% of petrol products with an import cost of $55 billion in 2020-21, India has set a target of blending 20% ethanol in petrol by 2025 resulting in import substitution saving of US$4 billion or INR30,000, and India provides financial assistance for manufacturing ethanol from rice, wheat, barley, corn, sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet, etc. Ethanol market penetration reached its highest figure of a 3.3% blend rate in India in 2016.

Ethanol is produced from sugarcane molasses and partly from grains and can be blended with gasoline. Sugarcane or sugarcane juice may not be used for the production of ethanol in India. The government is also encouraging 2G ethanol commercial production using biomass as feedstock.


The market for biodiesel remains at an early stage in India with the country achieving a minimal blend rate with diesel of 0.001% in 2016. Initially, development was focused on the jatropha (jatropha curcas) plant as the most suitable inedible oilseed for biodiesel production. The development of biodiesel from jatropha has met a number of agronomic and economic restraints and attention is now moving towards other feedstock technologies which utilize used cooking oils, other unusable oil fractions, animal fat, and inedible oils. Biodiesel and also Biopropane are produced from non-edible vegetable oils, used cooking oil, waste animal fats, etc


The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s and has significantly increased in the last few years. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, domestic policy support for wind power has led India to become the country with the fourth-largest installed wind power capacity in the world.

As of 30 June 2018, the installed capacity of wind power in India was 34,293 MW, mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (7,269.50 MW), Maharashtra (4,100.40 MW), Gujarat (3,454.30 MW), Rajasthan (2,784.90 MW), Karnataka (2,318.20 MW), Andhra Pradesh (746.20 MW) and Madhya Pradesh (423.40 MW) Wind power accounts for 10% of India's total installed power capacity. India has set an ambitious target to generate 60,000 MW of electricity from wind power by 2022.

The Indian Government's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy announced a new wind-solar hybrid policy in May 2018. This means that the same piece of land will be used to house both wind farms and solar panels

Sustainable energy is the need of hour?


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